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Transvaginal Ultrasonography (TVS), also known as transvaginal ultrasound, is a medical imaging technique that utilizes high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of the pelvic organs. It involves inserting a small, wand-like transducer into the vagina, which allows for a closer and clearer view of the pelvic structures compared to traditional abdominal ultrasound.

Procedure: During a TVS procedure, the patient is typically positioned on an examination table with their feet in stirrups, similar to a pelvic examination. The transducer, covered with a protective sheath and lubricated, is gently inserted into the vagina. The transducer emits sound waves that bounce off the pelvic organs, creating real-time images on a monitor. These images are interpreted by a trained medical professional.


  1. Obstetric Imaging: TVS is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the health and development of the fetus. It can provide early pregnancy confirmation, estimate gestational age, detect multiple pregnancies, and evaluate the placenta’s position.
  2. Gynecologic Imaging: TVS is a valuable tool for assessing the health of various pelvic organs in women. It can help diagnose conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and endometriosis. TVS is also used to evaluate the thickness of the endometrial lining and assess the ovaries for signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  3. Infertility Evaluation: TVS plays a crucial role in evaluating the causes of infertility. It can identify issues such as ovarian follicle development, uterine abnormalities, and tubal patency. These insights aid in devising appropriate fertility treatment plans.
  4. Guidance for Procedures: In some cases, TVS is used as a guidance tool for procedures such as egg retrieval during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or for the placement of intrauterine devices (IUDs).


  • Higher Resolution: Due to the close proximity of the transducer to the pelvic organs, TVS provides higher-resolution images compared to abdominal ultrasound.
  • Early Detection: TVS can detect pregnancy at an earlier stage than abdominal ultrasound, making it particularly useful in early pregnancy monitoring.
  • Minimally Invasive: TVS is minimally invasive and generally well-tolerated by patients.
  • Detailed Visualization: The detailed images obtained through TVS enable healthcare providers to make accurate diagnoses and treatment decisions.


  • TVS is generally safe and non-invasive. However, it’s important for patients to communicate any discomfort or pain during the procedure.
  • Patients should follow any pre-procedure instructions provided by their healthcare provider, such as having a full bladder.


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